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    An Evolutionary Multi-Objective Simulation Optimization Algorithm for Supply Chain with Uncertain Demands
    Wang Hongfeng, Zhang Yitian, Chen Jingze
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (12): 2761-2770.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.21-0837
    Abstract4600)      PDF(pc) (637KB)(4506)       Save
    During the COVID-19 pandemic, supply chain of manufacturing companies is facing more severe product demand uncertainty, which is manifested in the sharp increase in demand for certain types of products and the increased fluctuations in supply for raw materials. For this supply chain optimization problem with demand uncertainty, a multi-objective stochastic programming model is developed in order to maximize the total profit and product order fulfillment rate simultaneously in this paper. For solving the investigated problem, a new evolutionary multi-objective simulation optimization algorithm is proposed by combining the mechanism of NSGA-II and simulation computing budget allocation adaptively. Experimental results show the validity of the presented model and algorithm.
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    Research on Supply Chain Recovery Strategy under Disruption Risks
    Yang Yi, Peng Chen, Yang Yujiu, Wang Yulong
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (12): 2771-2781.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.21-0825
    Abstract3932)      PDF(pc) (1266KB)(3857)       Save
    Aiming at supply chain disruptions, two effective supply chain recovery strategies are proposed, namely, a supplier’s preset emergency inventory strategy and a manufacturer’s product change strategy, meanwhile, emergency inventory storage cost and products return rate after change are also taken into consideration. In order to maximize the manufacturer’s profit and customer satisfaction, a single-objective model and a bi-objective model are established, respectively. The optimization problems in the two models are transformed into mixed integer programming problems, moreover, corresponding solution algorithms are presented based on ILOG CPLEX. The simulation results show that the disruption recovery strategies proposed can not only help suppliers to reduce losses effectively, but also meet the market demands well.
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    Brief Review on Applying Reinforcement Learning to Job Shop Scheduling Problems
    Wang Xiaohan, Zhang Lin, Ren Lei, Xie Kunyu, Wang Kunyu, Ye Fei, Chen Zhen
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (12): 2782-2791.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.21-FZ0774
    Abstract4424)      PDF(pc) (478KB)(5252)       Save
    Reinforcement Learning (RL) achieves lower time response and better model generalization in Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP). To explain the current overall research status of JSSP based on RL, summarize the current scheduling framework based on RL, and lay the foundation for follow-up research, the backgrounds of JSSP and RL are introduced. Two simulation techniques commonly used in JSSP are analyzed and two commonly used frameworks for RL to solve JSSP are given. In addition, some existing challenges are pointed out, and related research progress is introduced from three aspects: direct scheduling, feature representation-based scheduling, and parameter search-based scheduling.
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    Kernel Block Diagonal Representation Subspace Clustering and Its Convergence Analysis
    Liu Maoshan, Ji Zhicheng, Wang Yan, Wang Jianfeng
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (11): 2533-2544.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.21-0950
    Abstract4083)      PDF(pc) (686KB)(4731)       Save
    Focus on the problems that the linear block diagonal representation subspace clustering cannot effectively handle non-linear visual data, and the regular regularizers cannot directly pursue the k-block diagonal matrix, a kernel block diagonal representation subspace clustering is proposed. In the proposed algorithm, the original input space is mapped into the kernel Hilbert space which is linearly separable, and the spectral clustering is performed in the feature space. The convergence analysis is given, and the strong convex of variables and the boundedness of function is utilized to verify the monotonically decreasing of objective function and the boundedness and convergence of the affinity matrix, which breaks through the difficulty of convergence proof. Compared with other algorithms such as the kernel sparse subspace clustering and the block diagonal representation algorithm tested, the algorithm has achieved the lower clustering error and higher normalized mutual information on Extended Yale B, ORL and MVtec ITODD.
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    Modeling and Simulation of Crowd Multi-perception Behavior Model in Closed Public Places
    Ma Jun, Hu Jun
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (10): 2289-2297.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.21-0757
    Abstract4555)      PDF(pc) (2830KB)(4594)       Save
    The social forces-based multi-agent modeling method is used to build the crowd simulation models in most of the existing crowd behavior simulation software systems. From the perspective of cognitive psychology, combined with the spatial logic model of the generalized influence of the crowd obtained by the author’s previous research, and based on the sigmoid function, the mathematical model of the individual visual and auditory perception of the crowd is constructed. Taking the typical subway transfer hall as an example, the objective function of large passenger volume evacuation optimization is established to construct the crowd evacuation simulation model. The simulation results based on the defined scenarios show that the proposed multi-perception behavior model is effective.
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    High Performance Simulation Method and Test Platform for Full Envelop of Flight Vehicle
    Wang Jianlin, Chen Sufang, Tie Ming, Liu Jing, Zhang Jun
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (10): 2298-2306.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.21-0625
    Abstract3690)      PDF(pc) (1102KB)(4026)       Save
    In order to meet the needs of the overall performance simulation and verification of the vehicle with large subsamples and massive states, a high-performance simulation method is proposed, in which a parallel simulation architecture based on high-performance computers is established, the technologies and software such as decoupling of simulation tasks, real-time monitoring of simulation, concurrent conflict control and automatic aggregation of large-scale test results are realized, and a test platform for the large-scale parallel verification of flight performance is developed. Simulation results show that the method has high acceleration ratio and scalability, and can complete the verification efficiently, which not only improves the overall verification and evaluation capability of the vehicle, but also promotes the improvement of the vehicle design.
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    Research on Simulation and Optimization of Maintenance Support Mode and Human Resources Auocation for Complex Equipment
    Cao Junhai, Guo Yiming, Zhang Chuang, Guo Qingyi
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (10): 2307-2314.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.21-0807
    Abstract3708)      PDF(pc) (1515KB)(3264)       Save
    Aiming at the single maintenance support mode of the army’s complex equipment and the strong randomness of human resource allocation, the military-level equipment maintenance process is taken as the research object, the complex equipment maintenance plan, maintenance support mode, human resource configuration, and maintenance process flow are analyzed. The simulation model of a complex equipment maintenance workshop is constructed, the influence of maintenance plans, maintenance support modes, and human resource allocation on indicators of “maintenance support time” and “human resource satisfaction rate” is explored, the internal laws is analyzed and the manpower optimal allocation for the maintenance of military equipment is suggested. The new thinking about the selection of military equipment maintenance support mode and the allocation of maintenance human resources is provided.
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    Intelligent Wargaming System: Change Needed by Next Generation Need to be Changed
    Hu Xiaofeng, Qi Dawei
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (9): 1997-2009.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.21-0728
    Abstract3935)      PDF(pc) (1665KB)(4320)       Save
    The future direction of wargaming system is intelligent, and the most significant feature of intelligence is the modeling of cognition. The main problems of wargaming system are summarized, the main difficulties of modeling brought by cognition and the overall framework of intelligent wargaming system design are discussed, the technical ways of transformation and upgrading based on the existing wargaming system are given from four aspects of model construction, system design, wargaming ecology and test inspection. It provides direction and reference to the development and construction of the next generation intelligent wargaming system.
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    Challenges and Reflection on Next-generation Large-scale Computer Wargame System
    Si Guangya, Wang Yanzheng
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (9): 2010-2016.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.21-0729
    Abstract2445)      PDF(pc) (843KB)(1656)       Save
    In view of the systematic, networked and intelligent characteristics of the future war, the major challenges of the new generation of large computer warfare system are proposed, and the next-generation large-scale computer wargame system is constructed. The key technologies of building a new generation of large computer warfare systems, such as intelligent war modeling, architecture integration, resource service management and human-computer interaction are researched.
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    Study on Next-generation Strategic Wargame System
    Wu Xi, Meng Xianglin, Yang Jingyu
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (9): 2017-2024.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.21-0731
    Abstract3364)      PDF(pc) (593KB)(1886)       Save
    Strategic wargame is an important support to the strategic decision. The research status and challenges of the strategic wargame are analyzed, and the influence of big data and artificial intelligence technology on the strategic wargame system is studied. The prospects and key technologies of the next-generation strategic wargame system are studied, including the construction of event association graph for strategic topics, generation of strategic decision sparse samples based on generative adversarial nets, gaming strategy learning of human-in-loop hybrid enhancement, and public opinion dissemination modeling technology based on social network. The development trend of the strategic wargame is proposed.
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    Research on the Issues of Next Generation Wargame System Model Engine
    Tang Yubo, Shen Bilong, Shi Lei, Yi Xing
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (9): 2025-2036.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.21-0735
    Abstract2603)      PDF(pc) (1724KB)(1849)       Save
    Aiming at the more and more complex war systems, widely used artificial intelligence technology is needed to make up the human deficiencies in future wargame deduction, which is necessary for the next generation wargame system model engine. To address these challenges, a framework prototype of the next generation wargame model engine based on the experience of the long-term development and application is proposed. The decoupling method for the complexity of structure and computation is researched. The human-computer integration architecture on digital twinning technology is studied. Some new modeling techniques which the threshold of model development is reduced and the efficiency is improved are explored. The engine mechanism is provided to support the machine learning, and to achieve the integrated design for distributed hardware environment.
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    Modeling Research of Cognition Behavior for Intelligent Wargaming
    He Xiaoyuan, Guo Shengming, Wu Lin, Li Dong, Xu Xiao, Li Li
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (9): 2037-2047.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.21-0727
    Abstract2598)      PDF(pc) (4559KB)(1786)       Save
    Aiming at the problem of cognitive behavior modeling in the construction and application of intelligent wargaming system, one modeling framework based on Actor-Operations-Scene (AOS) was proposed for C2 agent in wargaming. Then the realization of cognitive behavior modeling method for C2 agent was explored, including the modeling for the scenario oriented knowledge graph, intelligent situation awareness, operational planning, integrated operational control. It provides a feasible scheme for the construction and application of intelligent wargaming system.
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    Wargaming Eco-system for Intelligence Growing
    Wu Lin, Hu Xiaofeng, Tao Jiuyang, He Xiaoyuan
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (9): 2048-2058.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.21-0730
    Abstract2431)      PDF(pc) (5187KB)(2334)       Save
    The construction of the next generation intelligent wargaming system can not be accomplished at one move, but through building an ecosystem to gradually grow intelligence. The basic concepts of the intelligent wargame ecosystem, and are defined the idea of dynamic openness, diversified levels and co-evolution are proposed. Drawing lessons from the human intelligence growing process and learning-evolution mechanism, the double helix model of the next generation of wargame cognitive intelligent evolution and growth is constructed. On the basis of the OLTA cycle, the wargame deduction ecosystem system framework is given. The application of the technologies, such as digital twins, human-machine integration and symbiosis, sample generation, intelligence testing and evaluation, cloud native and so on, in the construction of an ecological environment for wargaming games are analyzed.
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    Abroad Wargaming Deduction and System Research
    Cao Zhanguang, Tao Shuai, Hu Xiaofeng, He Lülong
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (9): 2059-2065.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.20-0726
    Abstract3523)      PDF(pc) (191KB)(2638)       Save
    Wargaming is an important auxiliary means of war deduction, scheme evaluation and operational analysis. Wargaming deduction system can support the research of operational problems, innovation of tactics and development of operational concepts. The development status of foreign computer wargaming system from the deduction method and system research is reviewed, and the online deduction the multi-level joint deduction, as well as the research status of multi-level wargaming fusion design, the multi system combination and auxiliary tool development are mainly introduced, which can providereference to the development and application of computer wargame system.
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    Research on Hybrid Deployment Strategy and Model for Key Position Air-defense Based on Multi-weapon Platforms
    Wan Jiaqing, Wang Pengfei, Tang Junlin, Zhang Dong, Li Xinguo
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (8): 1754-1765.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.21-0477
    Abstract731)      PDF(pc) (1034KB)(809)       Save
    Multi-platform cooperative air-defense is the development direction of air-defense and antimissile warfare, and the hybrid deployment strategy and model are the important research content. Based on the background of key position air-defense research, the deployment strategy, principle and form of multi-platform cooperative air-defense are studied. The operational scenario and operational process of typical air defense are established. The principles, influencing factors and deployment methods of hybrid deployment are studied. A typical hybrid deployment strategy is proposed and a mathematical model is established. It provides support for the multi platform cooperative air defense and key position defense deployment.
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    Self-learning-based Multiple Spacecraft Evasion Decision Making Simulation Under Sparse Reward Condition
    Zhao Yu, Guo Jifeng, Yan Peng, Bai Chengchao
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (8): 1766-1774.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.21-0432
    Abstract840)      PDF(pc) (1550KB)(751)       Save
    In order to improve the ability of spacecraft formation to evade multiple interceptors, aiming at the low success rate of traditional procedural maneuver evasion, a multi-agent cooperative autonomous decision-making algorithm, which is based on deep reinforcement learning method, is proposed. Based on the actor-critic architecture, a multi-agent reinforcement learning algorithm is designed, in which a weighted linear fitting method is proposed to solve the reliability allocation problem of the self-learning system. To solve the sparse reward problem in task scenario, a sparse reward reinforcement learning method based on inverse value method is proposed. According to the task scenario, the space multi-agent countermeasure simulation system is established, and the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm are verified.
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    Simulation of Cooperative Control Process for Multiple UAVs Based on Local Information Connection
    Li Xiangyang, Zhang Zhili, Zhang Ning, Gui Yi, Li Jia
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (7): 1501-1513.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.21-0461
    Abstract713)      PDF(pc) (1029KB)(597)       Save
    Aiming at the requirements of cooperative control for multiple UAVs based on local information connection, the distributed architecture of Multi-UAV system is established on the basis of multilayer structure. The communication network topology, state control information model and intelligent Ad-Hoc network mechanism are proposed to ensure the reliable interactive communication among multiple UAVs under local information connection. The cooperative collision avoidance strategy with local state prediction and distributed iterative optimization, combined with the cooperative on-line track planning and threat avoidance control methods, are applied to realize the cooperative control of Multi-UAV's task execution process. Simulation experiments verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
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    Research on a Dynamically Perceptive Connectivity Restoration Method
    Hua Xiang, Li Baohua, Yao Hongjuan, Wang Zhao, Zuo Jiaxian
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (7): 1514-1525.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.21-0434
    Abstract542)      PDF(pc) (1238KB)(335)       Save
    The cluster communication network has the characteristics of time-varying topology, strong node mobility, and unstable link status, etc. It is difficult to maintain a stable topology. The network is divided into disconnected subgroups. In order to solve the communication problem between different groups, the cooperative relay node is introduced and a dynamic-sensing connection recovery method is proposed. A cooperative communication model is built and the mathematical expression of link quality indicators is deduced, which designs a multi-objective link evaluation function and achieves the optimal relay location planning through a multi-objective connectivity recovery algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can obtain optimal relay position between two disconnected groups and restore the network connectivity under different channel environments.
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    Research on Component-based Modeling of Simulation Entity for Logistics and Equipment Support
    Cao Qi, Xiang Qun, Wang Wenzheng
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (6): 1233-1240.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.21-0391
    Abstract799)      PDF(pc) (532KB)(852)       Save
    There has been a lack of efficient and advanced simulation training means and systems for logistics and equipment support. Aiming at the characteristics of non-antagonism, uncertainty, timeliness, parallelism and discontinuity in the simulation of support operation, the abstraction of three entities, three interaction relations and three organization relations is put forward. By using component-based modeling, the entity for logistics and equipment support is further decomposed into several attribute components and behavior components for modeling, which effectively solves the problem of entity modeling in simulation training of support operation. In this way, the conceptual modeling tool, simulation model development and packaging tool, and model resource management tool are built to support the engineering application of component-based modeling of simulation entity for logistics and equipment support and enhance the reusability and interoperability of simulation models.
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    Research on Description Specification of Extensible Simulation Scenario
    Xu Xiangzhong, Xiong Jun, Shen Fengwei
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (6): 1241-1247.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.21-0389
    Abstract714)      PDF(pc) (433KB)(1253)       Save
    Simulation scenario description specification is of great significance to speed the Simulation Scenario Data (SSD) preparation, to improve the quality and to promote the reuse of the SSD. An in-depth comparison between simulation scenario and military scenario is made. The composition and application process of military scenario based on the description specification are designed, above which, the design scheme of the description specification is discussed. The extensible military scenario description specification is proposed from the following two aspects, that is, the basic elements including time and coordinate system, and the data interchange format. Series of scenario instances are produced. Research results are helpful to enhance the consistency of initial boundary conditions for the interconnect of various simulation training centers and to promote the reuse of the SSD.
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    Research on the Overall Design and Key Technology of “Human in the Loop” Synthetic Training Simulation
    Dong Zhiming, Zhu Guangchao, Xu Xiangzhong, Tan Yaxin, Fan Rui
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (6): 1248-1257.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.21-0392
    Abstract893)      PDF(pc) (5872KB)(1300)       Save
    Aiming at the difficulties of "human-in-the-loop" synthetic training simulation such as large scale, many entities, decentralized deployment and many heterogeneous systems. After study the construction of US Army synthetic training environment, a sustainable evolution cloud service architecture of distributed synthetic training simulation based on TISA middleware is designed, and a composable multi-level synthetic training simulation application model is put forward. It solves the technical problems of distributed training simulation, which are real-time interconnection and interoperability, consistency of battlefield environment, model composition and reuse, simulation as a service, etc. It provides technical supports for large-scale "human-in-the-loop" tactical confrontation exercises and research exercises, which helps to improve combat effectiveness.
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    Research on Chemical Simulation Environment Modeling Based on Complex Terrain
    Liu Shunhua, Fang Min
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (6): 1258-1267.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.21-0393
    Abstract637)      PDF(pc) (3405KB)(537)       Save
    Environment simulation is an important part of the construction of simulation training system. Without considering terrain factors in current chemical simulation environment, there are many problems in directing and controlling, simulation interacting, estimating and evaluating of simulation training. Based on the classical Gaussian diffusion model, the new model is suitable for the complex terrain chemical simulation environment through terrain elevation correction, diffusion parameter correction and mass conservation correction. The simulated chemical hazard area is in line with the atmospheric diffusion law of complex terrain. The model presents a realistic environment and fast computing ability, which solves the problem of interactions between the chemical simulation environment and simulators. It also provides methods for setting the chemical simulation environment in professional simulation training.
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    Design of LVC Simulation Test Middleware for SaaS
    Du Nan, Tan Yaxin
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (6): 1268-1276.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.21-0399
    Abstract1185)      PDF(pc) (693KB)(744)       Save
    LVC (Live-Virtual-Constructive) technology provides a new technical means for equipment test. In view of the large number of heterogeneous simulation resource objects and complex interaction in the LVC system test, which can not meet the test task requirements of quick response of the weapon system, the middleware and application model framework is reformed according to the remote method invocation based on TENA. The functional modules of LVC simulation middleware including model running component, publishing and ordering component, message processing component and real-time running component are designed to provide efficient real-time communication mechanism for LVC simulation and support the application mode of simulation as a service (SaaS). The middleware can realize operation management services such as rapid scheduling, monitoring, distributing, deploying, operation controlling, data collecting and other complex resources of LVC test. It also provides technical supports with test task analysis, process monitoring, exception handling, combat weapons or various platforms cooperating for LVC test.
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    Research on Some Questions of Simulation Body of Knowledge
    Qiu Xiaogang, Duan Hong, Xie Xu, Chen Bin
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (4): 753-762.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.20-0621
    Abstract990)      PDF(pc) (267KB)(683)       Save
    Simulation body of knowledge (BOK) is the knowledge required to conduct Modeling and Simulation (M&S) activities, which is a logic system consisting of concepts, propositions, and inferences that are tightly related to each other. The simulation BOK organizes the M&S knowledge in a hierarchical way, reflects the composition and structure of the knowledge in the M&S domain. The establishment of the simulation BOK is crucial to advance the M&S research and education. The requirements for establishing the simulation BOK are summarized, three basic features of the simulation knowledge, practical, systematical, and epochal are discussed, the challenges of establishing the simulation BOK are analyzed, five ways to organize simulation knowledge are proposed, and a hierarchical structure for the simulation BOK is presented.
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    Study on Composition of Simulation Discipline Knowledge Areas
    Duan Hong, Qiu Xiaogang, Xie Xu, Ju Rusheng
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (4): 763-772.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.20-0637
    Abstract749)      PDF(pc) (188KB)(720)       Save
    Many disciplines, such as Software Engineering, Automation, have sorted out and formed their own knowledge areas and constructed their Body of Knowledge to steer teaching and study efforts. Describing the composition of Modeling and Simulation body of knowledge from the perspective of knowledge area plays an important role in the simulation engineering education and the development of simulation technology. According to the needs of simulation teaching, the body of knowledge of simulation discipline is divided into three levels, knowledge area, knowledge unit and knowledge topic. On the basis of reviewing the current status of the research and the role of body of knowledge, a composition of knowledge areas of simulation discipline is proposed, which is divided into basic knowledge domain and frontier knowledge domain according to the degree of mature of knowledge areas. The meaning of each basic knowledge area is briefly described and its knowledge units are sorted out. The frontier knowledge domain of simulation discipline is discussed.
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    Research on Combat Simulation Body of Knowledge
    Xie Xu, Qiu Xiaogang, Duan Hong, Huang Kedi
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (4): 773-780.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.20-0622
    Abstract982)      PDF(pc) (243KB)(1099)       Save
    Combat simulation is an important research method in modern military domain, since it provides a virtual battlespace for entities of various types that are involved in a battle to interact with each other. Over last several decades, combat simulation has been widely applied in different applications, and as a result the body of knowledge of combat simulation has been extended a lot. The relevant articles and textbooks in combat simulation are extensively investigated, and a three-layer structure to organize the body of knowledge of combat simulation is proposed. Eleven knowledge areas that should be included in the combat simulation basis are analyzed. The knowledge requirements for three types of combat simulation personnel are analyzed.
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    Overview of CGF-oriented Cognitive Architecture
    Xu Kai, Zeng Junjie, Yang Weilong, Qin Long, Yin Quanjun
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (2): 239-248.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.20-0937
    Abstract1354)      PDF(pc) (527KB)(1912)       Save
    In order to further formalize and boost standardized behavioral model development of Computer Generated Forces (CGF), the CGF-oriented cognitive architecture is reviewed and the implementation details of one of the CGF cognitive behaviors, i.e. plan recognition, upon standard cognitive architecture are designed. The results show that the well-designed architecture has a strong support for complex behavior modeling. Four specific suggestions, including requirement analysis, design implementation, theoretical principle and cooperation mechanism, for architecture design and complex behavior modeling are provided.
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    Spatio-Temporal Memory Models in Spatial Cognitive Behavioral Modeling
    Hu Yue, Xu Kai, Qin Long, Yin Quanjun, Zha Yabing
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (2): 249-261.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.20-0936
    Abstract789)      PDF(pc) (1016KB)(1260)       Save
    It is crucial for military simulation systems to model the layouts of spatial environments and the temporal logic of entity activities. To improve the human-likeness of Computer Generated Forces (CGFs) and the runtime efficiency of the systems, building spatio-temporal memory representations and reasoning mechanisms that accord to mankind cognition is required. The neuro cognition science background of spatio-temporal memory is presented, and the related work on modeling the memory in deep learning and computational intelligence communities is summarized. Following the OODA (Observe-Orient-Decide-Act) loop, a general framework of spatial cognitive behavioral modeling is designed and the application of spatio-temporal memory in different phases including qualitative spatial representations, situation comprehension and projection, online planning and acting is proposed. The framework can guide the effective modeling of spatial representations and reasonings for CGFs.
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    Research on CGF-oriented Virtual Human Perceptual Attention Model
    Yang Weilong, Xu Kai, Xie Xu, Sun Lin
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (2): 262-270.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.20-0938
    Abstract717)      PDF(pc) (1174KB)(885)       Save
    Perception model is an important research field of CGF behavior modeling. As the input of the reasoning module, the information obtained from the perception model has an important influence on the fidelity of the simulation. The CGF perception model is researched, and the attention mechanism, effective time of attention model is analyzed, compared with the traditional model of perception. By modeling the knowledge base and information feedback, a virtual human perception framework based on attention mechanism is proposed, and the experiment is carried out in the simulation environment.
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    Modeling of Adversarial Behavior on Road Network Based on Non-cooperative Game
    Wei Xiangyu, Zhang Qi
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (2): 271-279.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.20-0943
    Abstract726)      PDF(pc) (1057KB)(855)       Save
    The modeling of adversarial behavior is the key to the study of various military-like confrontation problems. Existing research mainly focus on the target domain, but in reality, many confrontation problems occur on the road network. Combined with the network flow representation of adversarial behavior, a network adversarial game modeling framework based on non-cooperative games is proposed, and a novel road network confrontation problem—network evasion interdiction game is given based on the framework. Simulation experiments show that the new double oracle algorithm performs better than the original linear solution algorithm. Data experiments based on real road networks further verify the feasibility and scalability of the algorithm. It shows that the road network interdiction game modeling framework based on non-cooperative game can better model adversarial behaviors on road network, and shows stronger robustness and better intelligence.
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    Behavior Modeling for Computer Generated Forces Based on Machine Learning
    Zhang Qi, Zeng Junjie, Xu Kai, Qin Long, Yin Quanjun
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (2): 280-287.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.20-0931
    Abstract856)      PDF(pc) (349KB)(1331)       Save
    With the rapid development of Machine Learning, especially deep learning, it has become an important way of modeling Computer Generated Force (CGF) behavior by ML methods, which can overcome the challenges of traditional methods. The existing research and application of three typical learning methods in CGF behavior modeling are discussed, and the effects of introducing learning into different stages of the typical CGF applications are analyzed, and the function and performance requirements of CGF behavior modeling using machine learning are proposed. Four potential research directions in the field for future are proposed.
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    Preliminary Research on Verification and Validation for CGF Behavioral Modeling
    Tang Jianbing, Zhang Qi, Jiao Peng, Zha Yabing
    Journal of System Simulation    2021, 33 (2): 288-294.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.20-0949
    Abstract690)      PDF(pc) (423KB)(610)       Save
    Building computer generated force model is a very important job in combat simulation. Its core content is modeling of complicated human behavior, including cognition behavioral modeling and physical behavioral modeling. The credibility is vital for behavioral model. Verification and validation (V&V) in all life circle of behavioral modeling can insure the credibility of behavioral model. On the basis of explaining V&V of behavioral modeling and other conceptions, the process model of behavioral modeling is proposed. The V&V process of CGF behavioral modeling is studied emphasizly. Many effective V&V methods for CGF behavioral modeling are explored.
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    A Survey on Underwater Bionic Electric Perception
    Xie Guangming, Zheng Junzheng, Wang Chen
    Journal of System Simulation    2020, 32 (12): 2289-2305.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.20-0759
    Abstract977)      PDF(pc) (9967KB)(920)       Save
    Sensing and detection technologies for underwater robots in complex underwater environments have been urgently needed.Weakly electric fields-based underwater bionic electric perception is a promising technical route.A kind of fish in nature,called weakly electric fish,can perceive their surrounding environment and other creatures through the varied electric field generated by themselves.Inspired by the electric fish,researchers have focused on the principle and methods of underwater perception based on weakly electric fields and the applications for intelligent underwater robots.The biological mechanism of weakly electric fish,the modeling and perception theory of underwater electric field,the underwater electric perception technology,and their applications are reviewed,and the future development trend of underwater bionic electric perception technology is prospected.
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    Optimal Scheduling and Decision Making Method for Dynamic Flexible Job Shop
    Wang Yan, Ding Yu
    Journal of System Simulation    2020, 32 (11): 2073-2083.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.20-0732
    Abstract728)      PDF(pc) (889KB)(1081)       Save
    For multi-objective dynamic flexible job-shop scheduling, an improved multi-objective differential evolution algorithm is proposed. The adaptive cross-mutation operator is introduced into the differential evolution algorithm to improve its global search capability. The fast non-dominated sorting method based on immunological principles is introduced to improve the quality of the solution set in the selection and sorting. An improved TOPSIS-G1-EVM comprehensive decision-making method is proposed. The comprehensive weight of G1-EVM is calculated by Nash equilibrium theory. The comprehensive weight and TOPSIS evaluation system are combined to evaluate each dispatching scheme. The experimental results show that the optimal scheduling algorithm is superior in the optimization ability and the effectiveness of the comprehensive decision-making method.
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    Time-varying parameter system modeling method based on zonotope-ellipsoid double filtering
    Wang Ziyun, Wang Peiyu, Zhan Yacong
    Journal of System Simulation    2020, 32 (11): 2084-2092.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.20-0727
    Abstract458)      PDF(pc) (1612KB)(649)       Save
    The traditional system modeling method using zonotopes as the feasible parameter sets islikely to increase the computational complexity of the algorithm due to the increasing dimensions of the zonotope shape matrix. This paper proposes a time-varying parameter modeling systems method based on zonotope-ellipsoid double filtering technique. Considering the time-varying parameters, a zonotope with the minimum volume is obtained during the iterations of the intersection with the constraint strip. After transforming the shape matrix of the zonotope, the dimensionality reduction is performed, instead of directly finding the row sum of the extended shape matrix, to reduce the algorithm conservativeness originated from the zonotopic space transformation. Singular value decomposition is used to re-derive the dimensionality-reduced zonotopic shape matrix, so that it can maintain the same dimension as the identification parameter vector and reducedthe computational complexity of the modeling algorithm.
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    Cascading Failure Analysis of Equipment Support Network Based on SIRV Virus Propagation Theory
    Zhang Qiang, Cao Junhai, Song Tailiang, Du Haidong, Zhang Chuang
    Journal of System Simulation    2020, 32 (10): 1847-1853.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.20-0504
    Abstract528)      PDF(pc) (1169KB)(630)       Save
    According to the complexity phenomenon of equipment support network being attacked by the enemy, the similarity between network cascading process and virus propagation process is compared and analyzed. On the basis of the existing load capacity cascading failure model, the process of virus immune propagation is integrated, four different states of support nodes are defined, and the cascade transmission model of equipment support network is constructed, which can better reproduce the real situation of our support organization being attacked by the enemy and public opinion. The simulation and comparison shows that when the defense resources are limited and the time is urgent, the active immune strategy is a priority, and can achieve better effect of resisting cascading failure with the implementation of target immune strategy, and thus the equipment support network has strong robustness and good recovery ability.
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    Modeling Research on Assessment System for Army Maintenance Work Capacity
    Du Haidong, Cao Junhai, Liu Fusheng
    Journal of System Simulation    2020, 32 (10): 1854-1861.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.20-0501
    Abstract543)      PDF(pc) (1515KB)(720)       Save
    A set of simulation model design scheme is proposed to meet the needs of maintenance simulation evaluation of combined army. After analyzing the principle of simulation evaluation of military maintenance capability, the requirements of the evaluation model is analyzed. The generation of maintenance tasks and the modeling scheme of maintenance support system are given; On the basis of the spare parts scheduling and the use process of support equipment, the maintenance support resource model is designed. The modeling basis for the evaluation of equipment maintenance capability of the combined army is provided, which supports the design and application case study of the simulation evaluation system of the maintenance capability of the army.
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    The Expansion from System Simulation to Domain Simulation
    Qiu Xiaogang, Chen Yazhou, Zhang Peng
    Journal of System Simulation    2020, 32 (9): 1637-1644.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.20-0541
    Abstract629)      PDF(pc) (7224KB)(695)       Save
    With the generalization of simulation application and complex system simulation becoming the focus, domain simulation is becoming more and more important. In 1995 United States Department of Defense (DoD) presented the master plan of modeling and simulation, which gives birth to the basic idea of domain simulation. The advances in information technology such as network technology and cloud computing help domain simulation to access to use. Taking the change of simulation research object as the basis, the development of simulation research from the aspects of model researches, simulation tools and simulation applications are summarized. The goal of domain simulation research and the mode of simulation activity based on domain simulation are proposed. The relationship between domain simulation and domain engineering is analyzed. The roles of domain simulation in improving the efficiency of simulation activities, enabling complex system simulation, improving the credibility of simulation and promoting the universality of simulation application are summarized.
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    Research on Geographical Battlefield Environment Model Facing Autonomous Platform
    You Xiong, Tian Jiangpeng
    Journal of System Simulation    2020, 32 (9): 1645-1653.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.20-0564
    Abstract576)      PDF(pc) (677KB)(918)       Save
    Battlefield environment model is an abstraction and description of the complex battlefield environment for specific needs. It supports the research and application of the nature and evolution of the battlefield environment. However, the existing battlefield environment model is mainly oriented to human war activities to describe the battlefield environment,and lacks the design for unmanned autonomous platforms. A multi-level battlefield environment model structure which couples the advantages of humans and machines is proposed, which can give full play to the machine's rapid numerical calculation capabilities at the geometric and feature levels, as well as human cognitive experience at the element, relationship, and model levels. A modeling method that integrates environmental observation, model construction and spatial decision-making is proposed to support the unmanned autonomous platforms to realize one autonomous spatial decision-making according to the tasks and environments.
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    Combat Effectiveness Simulation Evaluation Framework of Complex Weapon System
    Lei Yonglin, Zhu Zhi, Gan bin, Lei Sen, Chen Yong
    Journal of System Simulation    2020, 32 (9): 1654-1663.   DOI: 10.16182/j.issn1004731x.joss.20-0373
    Abstract723)      PDF(pc) (3126KB)(1263)       Save
    Combat effectiveness evaluation of complex weapon system is a scientific issue both military departments and defense industry concern. Current researches on simulation-based weapon system combat effectiveness evaluation lack the specificity to complex weapon system and a simulation-based formal combat effectiveness evaluation framework is especially desired. A framework is created and formalized on three measure layers of performance-outcome-effectiveness. Within the framework, simulation inputs are classified into different categories different outcome measure layers and different effectiveness measure layers are considered. An example of combat effectiveness evaluation framework for typical ballistic missiles is presented to demonstrate the proposed framework.
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